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Hydrometer


Density Hydrometers

Standard Hydrometers supplied will in strict accordance with the specifications issued by the British Standard in BS 718 and the Bureau of Indian Standards in IS 3104 (Part I) : 1982

Density Hydrometers are generally used in petroleum & related product testing
Range From 0.600 to 2.000 g/ml
Least Count/Graduation 0.002,0.001,0.0005,0.0002
Reference Temperature 15°C & 20 °C
Series available S-50,M-50 ,L-50,L-20
Standards BS 718 & IS 3104
GENERALLY USED DENSITY HYDROMETERS WITH THERE DETAILS
Type: L-20 L-50 & L-50 SP M-50 & M-50 SP S-50 & S-50 SP
Range Span 0.02g/ml 0.05 g/ml 0.05 g/ml 0.05 g/ml
Least Count 0.0002 0.0005 0.001 0.001
Total Length (Max) 335 MM 335 MM 270 MM 190 MM
Reference Temperature: 15°C & 20 °C 15°C & 20 °C 15°C & 20 °C 15°C & 20 °C
Scale Length(Max) 135 MM 125 MM 70 MM 50 MM




Specific gravity hydrometers

A Specific Gravity hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water.

A hydrometer is usually made of glass and consists of a cylindrical stem and a bulb weighted with mercury or lead shot to make it float upright. The liquid to be tested is poured into a tall container, often a graduated cylinder, and the hydrometer is gently lowered into the liquid until it floats freely. The point at which the surface of the liquid touches the stem of the hydrometer is noted. Hydrometers usually contain a scale inside the stem, so that the specific gravity can be read directly.

These are available with the common features as follows:
S.NO RANGE AVAILABLE L.C
1 1.000-2.000 0.01
2 0.700-1.000,1.000 -1.500 & 1.500-2.000 0.005
3 0.600-0.800 ,0.800-1.000 & SO ON UPTO 1.800 TO 2.000 0.002
4 0.600-0.700,0.700 TO 0.800 & SO ON UPTO 1.900 TO 2.000 0.001
5 0.600-0.650, 0.650 TO 0.700 & SO ON UPTO 1.950 TO 2.000 0.001




Alcoholometers
An alcoholometer is a hydrometer which is used for determining the alcoholic strength of liquids. It only measures the density of the fluid. Certain assumptions are made to estimate the amount of alcohol present in the fluid. Alcoholometers have scales marked with volume percents of "potential alcohol", based on a pre-calculated specific gravity. A higher "potential alcohol" reading on this scale is caused by a greater specific gravity, assumed to be caused by the introduction of dissolved sugars. A reading is taken before and after fermentation and approximate alcohol content is determined by subtracting the post fermentation reading from the pre-fermentation reading.
S.NO RANGE AVAILABLE L.C
1 0 to 100% 1%
2 0 t0 10% & 10 to 20 % & SO ON UPTO 90 to 100 % & 94 to 104% 0.1%




Battery Hydrometer
The state of charge of a lead-acid battery can be estimated from the density of the sulfuric acid solution used as electrolyte. A hydrometer calibrated to read specific gravity relative to water at 60 degrees Fahrenheit is a standard tool for servicing automobile batteries. Tables are used to correct the reading to the standard temperature



Lactometers
A lactometer (or galactometer) is a hydrometer used to test milk. The specific gravity of milk does not give a conclusive indication of its composition since milk contains a variety of substances that are either heavier or lighter than water. Additional tests for fat content are necessary to determine overall composition. The instrument is graduated into a hundred parts. Milk is poured in and allowed to stand until the cream has formed, then the depth of the cream deposit in degrees determines the quality of the milk



Baume Hydrometers
Baume hydrometer is a hydrometer with baume scale. . The Baumé scale is a pair of hydrometer scales developed by French pharmacist Antoine Baumé in 1768 to measure density of various liquids. The unit of the Baumé scale has been notated variously as degrees Baumé, B°, Bé° and simply Baumé (the accent is not always present). One scale measures the density of liquids heavier than water and the other, liquids lighter than water. The Baumé of distilled water is 0.

The relationship between specific gravity (s.g.) (relative density) and degrees Baumé is function of the temperature. Different versions of the scale may use different reference temperatures. Different conversions formulae can therefore be found in various handbooks.


As an example, a recent handbook indicates the following conversion rules at a temperature of 60°F: